Donnerstag, 19. Dezember 2013

Article: Peng, the Elastic Power

By Martin Boedicker

Whoever has witnessed a pushhands-demonstration by one of the masters of Tai Chi Chuan will never forget what he saw. A student attacks the master with full force. Instead of a spectacular defense, the master is just sinking a bit and suddenly the student flies away, as if jumping on a trampoline. The surprised audience is told, this is the techniques peng. Many spectators ask themselves, if this is this not just a trick. The suprising great effectiveness of the technique coupled with a lack of understanding of peng makes it hard to believe. But in the end it is not that difficult to understand peng. Peng, it is just difficult to do it.

Ma Yueliang comments:

"Peng is a hidden jin-power. It comes first within the thirteen basic movements and has an important position. It is relatively difficult to learn and when one begins to learn pushhands, it takes a long time to master it."
(Ma, Xu, p. 9)

But why it is so difficult to use peng? To understand this, one must divide the use of peng into two phases.

The first phase of peng

In the first phase one leads the force of the opponent into one owns center and one collects it like in a spring. Through this, one is also able to feel the direction and the amount of the attacking force.

Ma Yueliang:

"Peng is a reaction to the amount of the force of the opponent. In Pushhands one finds peng not only in the hands and arms, but all parts of the body have peng-power, which touch the opponent. If one has peng-power, one reached: 'If a movement is fast, one answers fast. If a movement is slow, one answers slow.' If one masters this, the feeling-power (tingjin) is just peng."

The elastic quality of peng is also described in the Tai Chi-Classic The Song of the Eight Methods (Bafa miyue):

"How to explain peng?
Like water carries a boat.
First fill the dantian with qi.
Then hold the head if suspended from above.
The whole body has the power of a spring.
Opening and closing should be clearly distinguished.
Even if the opponent uses a thousand pounds,
floating is without difficulty."

Thus, here peng is explained by the power of a spring. A similar picture was probably used, when the Tai Chi-masters changed the old Chinese character bing into the Tai Chi technical term peng. Originally bing stands for a quiver cover under pressure. The character of bing has the radical of hand (left) and the character with the pronunciation bing or peng (right):

This character is connected to:

The left character peng with the radical wood denotes an old war bow. The right character with the radical silk and the pronunciation bing denotes the pulling of a bow.

In the first phase of peng the incoming force is stored in one owns body like in a spring or in a drawn bow. The great difficulty in this phase of peng is, that the your body has to take the force of the opponent in an optimal way. Just the smallest mistake in timing or structure of the body will result in the technique collapsing.

The second phase of peng

In the second phase of peng one can release the stored power in different ways. If the power is send back into the opponent, one still calls this peng.

Ma Yueliang:

"If one was able to control the force of the opponent, one can use this opportunity against him and thus defeat him."
(Ma, Xu, p.9)

On the other hand one can also lead the stored energy with into the emptiness and thus destroy the center of the opponent. Ma Jiangbao explains it in this way:

"First I uses a small peng to feel the force of the opponent and then I lead him into the emptiness with a ."

Ma Yueliang comments:

"Peng-jin is full, but not full. It is empty, but not empty. Once full - once empty. The other does not know me, but I alone know the other. This explains, why peng is a hidden jin-power. Peng is also explained as the jin-power in the background. It is repeatedly said, that peng is like water. Water can carry a fallen leave as well as a big ship. In pushhands it doesn't matter if the attacking force is small or big. With peng you can master it. But peng is not only the carrying relationship that a boat has with water, but it is also a fine and subtle movement. When I receive the force of the other, I use my central equilibrium (zhongding) as a pivot, to change the direction of the incoming force upwards. In this way I let the other hang in the air and I can use a smaller force than the opponent: Even if he uses a thousand pounds, it is easy to let him float."
(Ma, Xu, p. 9)

The difficulty of peng in the second phase is to decide, what one wants to do with the force of the opponent. In the end one is dealing with a large force and even the smallest mistake allows the the full force to impact into your own body. Thus one should train the full peng only, when one has reached the level to deal with great force without using too much force oneself.

Ma Yueliang, Xu Wen, Wushi Taijiquan Tuishou, Xianggang Shanghai Shuju Chuban, Hongkong 1986

Mittwoch, 20. November 2013

Article: Tai Chi Chuan and the Relationship between Nature and Culture

By Martin Boedicker

Tai Chi Chuan is not just an old technique for self-defense, but it is also seen as a part of Chinese culture. Even though it claims to be a cultural technique, one seeks naturalness through the practice of Tai Chi Chuan. This search for naturalness in a cultural technique seems to be a contradiction to the mind of the Westerner, but do the Chinese think the same?

The Relationship of Nature and Culture from the Western Point of View

The root for the western word for culture is found in the Latin word culture, or in the verb colere, what means to take care or to till. The classical source for them is found in the Tusculan Disputations of Cicero:

”As all the fields which are cultivated are not fruitful, it is not every mind which has been properly cultivated that produces fruit; and, to go on with the comparison, as a field, although it may be naturally fruitful, cannot produce a crop without dressing, so neither can the mind without education; such is the weakness of either without the other. Whereas philosophy is the culture of the mind."
(Tusc. Disp. II13)

Cicero's idea of cultivation has consequences, which shape the western mind up to the present day. Cicero believed that he found the same principle behind farming and the development of the human mind. Analog to farming the natural condition of the mind is a neglected one. It is absolutely necessary to cultivate this condition. Thus there is not only a contradiction between the natural and the cultivated condition, but also a hierarchy: Not the natural, but the cultivated has to be strived for. For example Hegel says:

"…, the natural is that, what should not be; in naturalness, man should not stay. Nature is from its origins evil…"
(Hegel, p. 491 f)

To generalize: The western world developed the idea of the restraint of the natural. One finds this both in the macro cosmos, thus in the submitting of the environment and in the micro cosmos, thus in the control of the humane nature.

The Relationship of Culture and Nature in Chinese Thinking

The idea of man moving from nature to culture is also found in China. The beginnings of the cultivation of man are done by sages. The Book of Changes (Yijing) explains:

"In ancient times, when Fuxi had come to the rule of all under heaven, looking up, he contemplated the brilliant forms exhibited in the sky, and looking down he surveyed the patterns shown on earth. … He invented the making of nets of various kinds by knitting strings, both for hunting and fishing. … On the death of Fuxi, his place was taken by Shennong. He fashioned wood to form the plough, and bent wood to make the plough-handle. The advantages of ploughing and weeding were taught to all under heaven. … He encouraged markets to be held at midday, thus bringing all the people together, and assembling in one place all their wares.

After the death of Shennong, there arose Huang Di, Yao and Shun. … They hollowed out trees to form canoes; they cut wood long and thin to make oars. Thus arose the benefit of canoes and oars to help those who had no means of intercourse with others. … They used oxen (and carts) and yoked horses (to chariots), thus providing transport for what was heavy, and for distant journeys - thereby benefiting all under the sky. … They bent wood by means of string so as to form bows, and sharpened wood so as to make arrows. This gave the benefit of bows and arrows, and served to produce everywhere a feeling of awe.

In the highest antiquity, government was carried on successfully by the use of knotted cords (to preserve the memory of things). In subsequent ages the sages substituted these with written characters and bonds. By means of these (the action of all) all officers could be regulated, and (the affairs of) all the people accurately recorded."
(Legge, p. 319 f)

The Relationship of Nature and Culture in Confucianism

In Confucianism one follows this view. Through the work of the sages man leaves nature and becomes a cultivated person. But this condition is not as in European thinking an opposition to nature, but still an image of it. Everything in the cosmos is as the cosmos: Nature and culture are an expression of the same cosmic order. This is shown by the term three powers (sancai), which are heaven, earth and man, where heaven and earth represent nature, with man in their middle. The Book of Changes (Yijing) explains:

"In ancient times,
when the sages created the Book of Changes,
they followed the principle
of the inner nature (xing) and destiny.
Therefore, they established the way (dao) of heaven
and called it yin and yang.
Therefore, they established the way of earth
and called it hard and soft.
Therefore, they established the way of man
and called it humanity (ren) and righteousness.
They doubled these three powers
and therefore in the Book of Changes
six lines became a hexagram.“
(Boedicker, p. 4)

Thus the harmony between heaven, earth and man should be expressed in the social world by humanity and righteousness. The ability for it is developed by an intensive moral education, which is perfected by constant self-cultivation (xiushen). Self-cultivation is the link between the inner virtue and the external world. The book The Great Learning (Daxue), one of the Four Books (Sishu) of Confucianism explains:

"The ancient who wanted to explain
their clear and pure inner power (de) to the world
would first bring order to their state.
To bring order to their state,
they would first regulate their family.
To regulate their family,
they would first cultivate themselves.
To cultivate themselves,
they would first rectify their heart-mind (xin).
To rectify their heart-mind ,
they would first made their intentions (yi) sincere (cheng).
To make their intentions sincere,
they would first extend their knowledge.
The extension of knowledge lies in the investigation of things."
(Boedicker, p. 58 f)

The investigation of the things in the world is a precondition for moral behavior. This shows very clearly, that the external world is in close contact with the internal world of man. Thus, the step from nature to culture is a natural development.

The Relationship of Nature and Culture in Daoism

The parting from nature was easy for the Confucianist, but it was never succeeded by the Daoist. Bauer comments:

"Even though the Daoist participated lively in culture and society and influenced parts of it, like medicine and military strategy (to take two very separate one's) or even dominated then, one can find in their writings a nostalgic longing for a carefree and simple life in untouched nature, when man had not thought of himself as important and thus was not separated from the other beings."
(Paul, p. 207)

Zhuangzi saw the development of culture by the sages very critically:

"In ignorance and simplicity, the men of old were all quiet and tranquil. During those days, yin and yang were in harmony and equilibrium, the ghosts and spirits made no disturbance, the four seasons succeeded each other in due order, nothing was ever hurt, everything lived the full circle of life, and men had nowhere to employ their intelligence - this was an age of oneness between man and nature. During those days, men did nothing but follow the natural course of events.

As time went by, virtue gradually deteriorated and declined. When Suiren and King Fuxi began to rule over the world, they followed the people's bent but failed to retain the perfect state of oneness. When Shennong and the Yellow Emperor began to rule over the world, they attained stability but failed to follow the people's bent. Virtue continued to deteriorate and decline. When King Yao and King Shun began to rule over the world, they introduced systems of government and instruction with the result that purity was defiled and simplicity was spoiled. They violated the way (dao) so as to promote good deeds and neglected virtue so as to promote proper behaviors. Then, they disregarded their inborn nature and followed their own minds. When people began to probe into each other's minds, the world could no longer be kept in order.

Afterwards, formalities were introduced and worldly learning promoted. The former concealed the inborn nature and the latter drowned the mind. As a result, the people began to get confused and to cause disorder. There had been no way to recover their inborn nature and to restore their original purity and simplicity."
(Zhuangzi, p. 16 f)

Thus Daoist do not only reject culture, for them culture is the beginning of decline. Their ideal is to live in nature and to separate from all social, political and worldly actions. Only by retreating into nature one can develop naturalness. This idea is expressed by the term uncarved (pu), which is seen as the opposite of being cultivated (wen). It should be mentioned here that also the term martial (wu), which can also be found in Daoist texts, became an opposite of being cultivated.

Because the Daoist rejected culture, they developed their own form of self-cultivation: to nourish live (yangsheng). This term, was originally used by the Confucianists, but later became a nearly exclusively Daoistic term. In yangsheng the Daoist tries to live in accordance with the way (dao). One of the goals is to maintain good health. In the Zhuangzi, one finds three strategies of yangsheng:

- The fasting of the heart/mind (xinzhai) - the effort to become one with the qi
- The losing-self (sangwo)
- The meditation called sitting and forgetting (zuowang)

The Relationship of Nature and Culture in Tai Chi Chuan

If one compares the relationship of nature and culture in Confucianism and Daoism one finds as a common aspect, that man as part of the cosmos is a mirror of the cosmic principles. Regardless whether one looks for naturalness in culture or one sees nature as something holy, whether one looks for Confucianist humanity in the process of self-cultivation or one tries to be near nature by the Daoist nourishing of life, one tries always to be in harmony with the principles of the cosmos.

This idea is emphasized by Chinese philosophy of later centuries and the ideal for man is a mixture of Daoist naturalness and the Confucian way of being cultivated. These two qualities are the guarantor for a harmonic personality.

This is also strived for in Tai Chi Chuan. The student should not detach himself from naturalness by the exercise of the cultural techniques Tai Chi Chuan. Quite the opposite, as nature and culture are not in contradiction to each other. Through cultivation of the self one achieves naturalness and naturalness leads to a high level of cultivation.

An example for this is the call for the natural movement. In the opinion of the old Tai Chi-masters one can reach this only after hard training for a long time, called gongfu (Kungfu). At the end of this development naturalness is seen as a measurement for the level of the cultivation of the self and a testimony of the inner nature of the practitioner.

In Tai Chi Chuan one says also, that the breathing should be natural. But as often it is not like that. To return to a natural breathing it needs inner stillness and outside exercising. Thus, Tai Chi Chuan can enable one to return to an original condition, which was only lost.

Boedicker, Martin und Freya, The Philosophy of Tai Chi Chuan, Berkeley 2009
Hegel, Georg Wilhelm Friedrich, Werke in zwanzig Bänden. Band 19, Frankfurt am Main 1979
Legge, Book of Changes, Hunan Publishing House, 1993
Paul Sigrid, Kultur – Begriff und Wort in China und Japan, Dietrich Reimer Verlag, Berlin 1984
Zhuangzi, Library of Chinese Classics, Hunan People's Publishing House, 1999

Freitag, 18. Oktober 2013

Text: Small Thought

I was sitting today on my sofa and let my badminton racket fall on my head. It jumped beautiful elastic away. I thought:

The frame is hard - the strings are soft - only together, they are elastic.

Is this not the ideal of Tai Chi Chuan?

Montag, 30. September 2013

Article: Zhou - the Elbow Power

Tai Chi Chuan has 13 basic movements (shisanshi). One of them is the use of the elbow (zhou). The use of the elbow is explained in the Tai Chi-Classic The Song of the Eight Methods (Bafa miyue):

"How to explain zhou?
Within this method are the Five Elements.
Yin and yang divide into above and below.
Full and empty are clearly distinguished.
The opponent can not resist the interlinked movements.
In the case of a fistfight it becomes even fiercer.
When the six jin-powers have been thoroughly mastered,
applications will be endless."

The use of the elbow is a highly effective and dangerous technique. One can be easily mislead, in order to break the attack, to use zhou against the force of the opponent. But this is wrong. Ma Yueliang’s comment about zhou:

"You press into the empty point of the opponent."
(Ma, Xu, S. 11)

This quote shows for the second time that the yin-yang-pair "full and empty" is of importance for the application of zhou.

The pair "full and empty" has been used since ancient times in the strategic literature of China. E.g. within Sunzi's The Art of War (Sunzi Bingfa) is a full chapter called "Full and empty". Sunzi explains here, that "on the way to victory, one avoids the full points of the opponent and attacks the empty ones." (Ames p. 124) Wu Gongzao, the second son of Wu Jianquan, describes it similarly in his chapter "Full and empty":

"The strategy is called full and empty. … If the opponent is full, I evade. If the opponent is empty, I attack."
(Wu, p 21)

From the viewpoint of Chinese strategy, an attack is never directed against the strength of the opponent. One rather tries to find his empty or weak points. An attack only then happens, and thus is always successful. In Tai Chi Chuan, feeling (tingjin) is highly important, because in this way one can detect the empty points of the opponent. The ability of feeling should not only be in the hands, but has to be developed also in the elbows.

Ames Roger, Sun-tzu: the art of war, Ballantine Books, New York 1993
Bödicker, Martin, Das Tai Chi-Klassiker Lesebuch, Willich, 2013
Ma Yueliang, Xu Wen, Wushi Taijiquan Tuishou, Xianggang Shanghai Shuju Chuban, Hongkong 1986
Wu Gongzao, Taijiquan Jiangyi, Shanghai Shudian, Shanghai 1995

Dienstag, 24. September 2013

Why I like to Watch the Tai Chi-Masters doing their Forms

Sitting in my garden I was with a great Book: "The Elegance of the Hedgehog" by Muriel Barbery. I read there the following little story about a rugby player and his haka (New Zealand war dance):

"Then when the New Zealand players began their haka, I got it. In their midst was this very tall Maori player, really young. I'had my eye on him right from the start, probably because of his height to begin with but then because of the way he was moving. A really odd sort of movement, very fluid but above all very focused, I mean very focused within himself.

Most people, when they move, well, they just move depending on whatevers's around them. At this very moment, as I am writing, Constitution the cat is going by with her tummy dragging close to the floor. This cat has absolutely nothing constructive to do in live and still she is heading towards something, probably an armchair. And you can tell from the way she's moving: she is heading towards.

Mamam just went by in the direction of the door, she's going out shopping and in fact she already is outside, her movement anticipating itself. I don't really know how to explain it, but when we move, we are in a way destructured by our movement towards something; we are both here and at the same time not here because we are already in the process of going elsewhere, if you see what I mean. To stop destructuring yourself, you have to stop moving altogether. Either you move and you're no longer whole, or you're whole and you can't move.

But that player, when I saw him go out onto the field, I could tell there was something different about him. ... Everyone was enthralled by him but no one seemed to know why. Yet it became obvious in the haka. He was moving and making the same gestures as the other players, but while the others' gestures went towards their adversaries and the entire stadium, this players gestures stayed inside him, stayed focused upon him, and that gave him unbelievable presence and intensity.

And so the haka, which is a warrior chant, gained all its strength from him. What makes the strength of a soldier isn't the energy he uses trying to intimidate his opponent by sending him a load of signals, it's the strength he's able to concentrate within himself, by staying centred. That Maori player was like a tree, a great indestructible oak with deep roots and a powerful radiance - everyone could feel it. And yet you also got the impression that the great oak could fly, that it would be as quick as the wind, despite, or perhaps because of, its deep roots."

And that moment I thought of my teacher, doing his Tai Chi Long Form in the middle of 200 people.

Total stillness in the audience. One could hear a needle fall.

The master focused within himself.

Still, like a mountain. Moving, like a big river.

Nothing else to say - that's all.

Thx for your time


Montag, 16. September 2013

Link: Translation of the Taiji Fashuo - the 40 Classics of the family Yang

Here a link to the Translation of the Taiji-Fashuo, also known as the 40 Texts of the family Yang:


Freitag, 13. September 2013

Article: References to philosophical Classics in Western Taijiquan Literature

If you look closely at Western Taijiquan literature, you can easily find anecdotes or allusions which even a Western reader can identify as references to Chinese classical texts. Here are two examples and their sources:

1) When Zhang Sanfeng was asked by a student about the principles [of Taijiquan], he replied by sticking out his tongue. The student didn ́t understand.

“Do you see my tongue?" the master asked.

The student replied: “Yes."

“Did you see my teeth?"

The student smiled and said: “You have none anymore!"

“That ́s just it. The tongue is soft and supple, it always was there and will be there.
The teeth are hard, they do not last and, in the end, they fall out."
(Anders, p. 20 f)

This anecdote is surely inspired by the daoistic Huainanzi (from the pre-Christian times), where it is written:

“Therefore, a weapon that is too rigid will burst.
A piece of wood that is too hard will break.
A piece of leather that is too brittle will tear.
The teeth, harder than the tongue, suffer the first damage."
(Bödicker, p. 77)

2) As a tip for the beginner in Taijiquan you can find the following advice:

“Even when you think that Taijiquan has its roots in the Philosophy of Asia, you should be careful not to mystify or overemphasise the spiritual aspects. Taijiquan lives through its great naturalness and, as you would not pull a stalk to make it grow faster, you should take time to learn Taijiquan step by step."
(Engel, p. 124)

This image of the stalk can also be found in the Confucian philosopher Mencius, where a farmer is blamed for being too impatient. This man “was sad that his grain was not growing and so he was pulling at it. In the evening he came home and said to his family:

'Today I am tired, I have been helping the grain grow.’

His son ran out to the fields to have a look and saw that all plants were already withered."
(Men 2A/2, p. 55)

These two examples show how ideas of the Chinese philosophical Classics entered into the Western Taijiquan literature. The authors were certainly not always conscious of the source. But that is not important, providing that, as in these examples, the meaning remains true to the source.

Bödicker, Freya and Martin, The Philosophy of Tai Chi Chuan, Berkeley, 2009
Anders Frieder, Tai Chi Chuan, Econ, Düsseldorf 1994
Engel Siegbert, Tai Chi, BLV Verlag, Munich 2004

Samstag, 31. August 2013

News: New Kindle-Book of Martin Boedicker

Tai Chi Chuan in the History of Chinese Martial Arts

In the book The Great Learning (Daxue) it is written: “All things have roots and branches“. The branches of Tai Chi Chuan are visible today, but the roots are hidden in the mists of time. On the search for them, this little book takes a look at Tai Chi Chuan in realtionship to the history of Chinese martial arts. This perspective leads us from ancient times until the Chinese republic.

After studying this book, the reader will have a more complete picture of the martial art of Tai Chi Chuan and will provide him with new avenues of thoughts on her/his beloved art.


- Tai Chi Chuan as Part of China's Martial Arts
- Martial Arts in Ancient China
- The Foundation Myth of Tai Chi Chuan
- Martial Arts during the Ming Dynasty
- Qi Jiguang, the General
- Chen Wangting, the Proven Fighter
- Martial Arts during the Qing Dynasty
- The Internal Martial Arts
- Chang Naizhou
- From Chenjaigou to Yongnian
- Tai Chi Chuan at the Chinese Emperor's Court
- Tai Chi Chuan in the Republican Era

To order please click: here

Enjoy reading


Sonntag, 25. August 2013

Article: What I know about Taijiquan

Jiang Feng Chang, Journal of the Jianquan Taijiquan Association Shanghai No. 9, 30.11.1983

As everyone knows, one says: "Life is movement - the source of health is the exercise." The problem is to decide what kind of sport to practice. You should first find out what benefit it offers to the health of body and mind. It should be like a good friend. You know about its particularities and trust it. By this one develops interest and affection. I myself love Taijiquan and got great benefit from it. This year I am 89 years old. My head is covered with silver hair, but the colour of my face is excellent, my steps are still firm, my waist is not crooked, my back is not hunched and I am not weak. I think, therefore, I can be a good example and want know now to explain a little of what I know about Taijiquan.

1) Taijiquan has a rich old martial art theory. It refers to Classical philosophy, statements from Chinese Medicine, Sunzi’s Art of War, physiology, physics, etc., and stresses: "The heart/mind (xin) is still and the imagination (yi) is used“, "One is aligned and the body is relaxed." etc. Outside and inside are united in the movements of the body. This is a feature of Taijiquan.

2) Taijiquan is an old Chinese health exercise. It blends together the essence of traditional martial arts. In the Taiji form one is aware of the movements, with the important principle of the waist as mid-axis of the movements. One makes movements into arcs and circles and strives to: "Find stillness in movement and movement in stillness" and to "Find the round in the straight and the straight in the round." That is moving the jin-power, as if one pulls silk. Never ending soft movements. Especially the Wu Taijiquan governed by the soft change. All of this is the second feature.

3) Taijiquan is an internal martial art. It emphasizes the connection of the outside and inside and that hard and soft support each other. Furthermore, its movements are slow, relaxed and soft, according to the natural laws of physiology. Thus the nervous system is trained, muscles and the bones strengthened and the joints remain flexible. Furthermore, one can breathe freely and regulate the function of the internal organs. Physical power is not exhausted and it reveals many positive effects. Anyone can practice it and you can do it anywhere. It fits not only young people but also for older. This is the third feature of Taijiquan.

4) Taijiquan also has another special feature. It has both depth and width and one also shows interest in the inner nature (xing). It is a lesson without end - a kind of art. If you exercise the form, you already have the effect of a relatively comprehensive health care. If you are then advanced, you can melt the foundation (ti) and the application (yong) together and learn Pushhands. So you can deepen your knowledge of the martial arts and its capabilities in self-defence. With strong interest you can now train the conscious feeling and a good balance. In addition, it is also exciting and gripping to learn forms with training equipment such as sabre, spear and sword. This will be a long-term practice and you can learn from your own experience. Taijiquan can truly develop will power and influence the development of a positive character.

The above is only a little, I know about Taijiquan. Because its theory is relatively deep, it must be studied very intensively. Also, its movements are complicated. Therefore, I believe that the process of learning takes a long time of practice. In this time the practice has to be blended with the theory. Only in this way and step by step one can examine it and day by day it will become stronger. It needs perseverance and a firm conviction. You unite with it inseparable. You rely on your own strength and so continuously investing in your own body. So it is not difficult to have a long life.

Freitag, 24. Mai 2013

Clip: Opening Dao

Opening Dao

is a short documentary film on Taoism and martial arts filmed in China in 2009. Scholars, top martial artists and monks explain the principles of the way, a treasure of wisdom that survived thousands of years. The film highlights the interconnectedness between the philosophy and the natural world and how its principles manifest in certain martial arts and meditative arts.

See the film: here

Dienstag, 16. April 2013

Donnerstag, 11. April 2013

Quote: Thoreau

“Philosophy practiced is the goal of learning.” – Thoreau